PDF Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa: Development, Democracy, and Dictatorship 9th edition Sean Yom
But the sentiments of the Arab public could not be more different from their governments’ official statements. Wherever protests have been allowed, crowds have filled squares in solidarity with Palestine. As Israel wages genocidal war against the Palestinian people in Gaza, the United States is back to playing regional cop in the Middle East.
Despite region-wide calls for social and political reform during the 2011 Arab uprising protests, few liberal, democratic institutions—such as free speech and freedom of the press—exist in the Middle East today outside Israel and, more recently, Tunisia. As Arab spring protests failed to establish democratic states, civil wars have erupted between various armed groups. Until leaders stop this corrupt cycle, these countries will be unable to move forward.
Chapter 17: Gulf States: Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Oman
Efforts to intensify the digitalization of government services in Kuwait are in place following the confirmation of the Director-General of the Central Agency for Information Technology (CAIT), Haya Al-Wadani. This is aligned with the government’s work program for the 16th legislative term (2022–2026), which the CAIT was assigned to oversee and accomplish. There is no one-size-fits-all approach for providing improved access to digital services, but this is an opportunity for progress in the public sector — taking technology-agnostic approaches, understanding organizations’ specific needs and bringing it all together to achieve the best experience possible. Rampant corruption, paired with the dire economic situation will only deepen the distrust in politics and the social tensions tearing apart the country.
The program examines the growing energy, trade, security and political relationships with the aim of developing greater understanding of the interplay between these strategically important regions. Developing the traditional civil-military relations approach to include security actors, the book compares the style of civil-security relations in both Egypt and Turkey. The volume comprehends the competition between civilian actors and military and security actors to impose control over the … This book provides an analysis of the relationship between the Egyptian army and the Muslim Brotherhood (MB).
Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences, University of New England, Armidale, Australia
Founded in Egypt in 1928, the Muslim Brotherhood gained legitimacy for its resistance to the British occupation, calling for governance in accordance with Islamic law, or sharia. One of the group’s founding fathers, Sayyid Qutb, went on to preach armed struggle (jihad) against Egypt’s secular government, a principle later adopted by extremist groups such as al-Qaeda, the Islamic State, and Hamas. Egypt’s authoritarian leaders have long viewed the Muslim Brotherhood as a political threat, arresting thousands of the group’s members and even executing its top leaders, including Qutb.
The region continues to struggle with authoritarianism, with even the leadership changes sparked by the Arab Spring uprisings of over a decade ago ultimately failing to dismantle the power structures that allow those at the top to retain control and hinder political integrity. Governments globally are commiting to net zero targets, with 136 countries having already pledged. In the Middle East this includes Saudi Arabia and Bahrain committing to net zero by 2060 and the UAE by 2050. As one of the world’s regions most impacted by climate change, the sustainability agenda presents Middle East governments with important key policy choices and transformation opportunities, as ESG is no longer a nice to have but a must have. Iran has a peculiar political system, being a theocratic republic where a constrained electoral arena and tenacious policy debates subsist underneath the weight of tutelary religious institutions that give supreme power and authority to Shi‘a clerics. Such a political order has undergone many evolutionary changes in the 40 years since its revolutionary birth, but among its future challenges are an economy stifled by international sanctions, internal polarization, generational change, and the complexities of regional geopolitical resistance.
How the Israel-Hamas War in Gaza Is Changing Arab Views
We need to step up efforts and reforms to advance sustainable development and economic recovery. Bush School graduates who concentrated on the Middle East during their studies have gone on to successful careers in research and advocacy, development, diplomacy, and intelligence. Among the first portals in the region to adopt OpenAI GPT capabilities is Qatar’s e-government portal, Hukoomi. Through Azure Qatar Cloud and in accordance with the National Artificial Intelligence Strategy, this implementation will enhance user experience and deliver better efficiency and speed in the portal.
- E-government is the transformation of the public sector through ICT in order to optimize both government service delivery and citizen participation.
- It assessed that Crambus was involved in gaining initial access and exfiltrating data from impacted networks.
- MEI’s scholars draw on deep ties and decades of experience working in the region to build better understanding of Middle East policy.
- Gaps remain in transparency in appointments for the anti-corruption commission and the subsequent public procurement law passed in 2021.
In three countries—Libya, Syria, and Yemen—Arab uprising protests ultimately devolved into civil war. The worst violence has occurred in Syria, where citizens protested against Bashar al-Assad, an oppressive, authoritarian president whose family has ruled Syria for five decades. The Assad regime, based on the minority Alawite sect, began indiscriminately firing on peaceful protesters in 2011, and within a year opponents started taking up arms. But this opposition splintered from the start, as a disparate patchwork of moderate and extremist groups fought to unseat the Assad regime and implement their competing visions for the future of Syria. The Syrian civil war has left hundreds of thousands dead, with the Assad regime responsible for the overwhelming majority of those casualties—estimates range from 75 to 90 percent—in some cases by using chemical weapons. With results published since 1995, the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is by Transparency International (TI).
Reinvigorating discussion on how Arab and Middle Eastern peoples and societies seek good government, Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Democratization and Government provides tests and contests of old and new assumptions. These are the countries included in the MENA region, listed in alphabetical order, followed by their capital cities. The term covers an extensive region of the world and includes all Middle Eastern and Maghreb countries. Click on the name of the country to be redirected to the country’s government webpage. Lebanon has traditionally enjoyed a confessional democratic system. The Lebanese constitution, doctored in 1926, was based on the French constitution and guaranteed liberty and equality for all its citizens.
This makes it difficult for citizens to get information on the ruling family’s activities, as well as government processes. Lamentably, a series of rights restricting legal reforms by the government begun in late 2021 have only made the situation worse. And in a region with so much conflict, such budgets are significant – offering substantial gains for corrupt actors. Risks becoming a failed state three years after Nato-backed rebels overthrew Muammar Gaddafi.
The six top languages, in terms of numbers of speakers, are Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Kurdish, Hebrew and Greek. Prior to the formation of civilizations, advanced cultures formed all over the Middle East during the Stone Age. The search for agricultural lands by agriculturalists, and pastoral lands by herdsmen meant different migrations took place within the region and shaped its ethnic and demographic makeup.
All of this has fuelled instability in Jordan, which has repercussions beyond its borders. The country has long served as a mediator in the region, reducing tensions between various groups. Now that its scores on the CPI and other indicators are deteriorating, regional and international actors are less likely to trust the country in this role, threatening future attempts to establish and maintain stability.
Opposition and military figures to be part of the country’s new cabinet
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Does Palestine have a democracy?
The Palestinian Authority is an authoritarian regime that has not held elections in over 15 years; it has been criticized for human rights abuses, including cracking down on journalists, human rights activists, and dissent against its rule.
Does Palestine support Hamas?
Hamas, unsurprisingly perhaps, finds growing support, especially among West Bank Palestinians. Backing for the militant group as a political party has increased there nearly four-fold (from 12% to 44%) in the three months between September 2023 and December 2023.